NixCon 2022: A Brief Summary

NixCon, the yearly convention for all things Nix was held in Paris this year. I attended as a member of the Consistent Hardening and Analysis of software supply chaINS (CHAINS) project. CHAINS is a team of researchers and engineers based in the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, working towards a more secure software supply chain. The project is funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research.

What Nix is

Nix is a package manager, first imagined by Eelco Dolstra in his soon-to-be twenty years old doctoral dissertation The Purely Functional Software Deployment Model. It differs from other package managers, such as Debian’s apt or Fedora’s yum, by its strong guarantees of reproducibility; Nix lists all components and dependencies of a software package, not just by name and version, but also with a cryptographic hash of their source code and build environments. This allows consumers of a package to reproduce not only the package’s binary, but also its entire runtime environment. As a consequence, what works on my machine is as good as guaranteed to work on yours.

Nix is not a one-trick pony. Besides being a package manager, it has a Linux-based operating system called NixOS built on top of it. Nix also comes with its own programming language, the Nix expression language. It is a far cry from declarative configuration languages such as YAML. To my novice eyes, it appears to be a mix of ML and JSON.

As an example, the following snippet will create a Python 3.9 environment with the packages numpy and pandas installed:

{ pkgs ? import <nixpkgs> {} }:
pkgs.python3.withPackages (ps: with ps; [ numpy pandas ])

To run it, save it in a file called shell.nix and run nix-shell. This will start a shell session with the requisite packages installed.

The high complexity of the Nix ecosystem can make getting into Nix a daunting task. But Nix is growing, rapidly. As Eelco Dolstra explained in his inaugural talk, half of the stars on Nix’s Github has been accrued in the past year. For a nearly two decades old project, that is impressive growth.

NixCon 2022

The talks at the conference ranged from the highly technical and esoteric to the very general and non-technical. There was no explicitly supply chain related talks, but there was an awareness that the software supply chain is a topical issue, together with sometimes rather bold claims about Nix’s usefulness. Ron Efroni, Nix board member and CEO of Flox, were among the most vocal regarding supply chains. He claimed that Nix “inherently solves” SLSA, the recently announced framework for supply chain security, and that Nix replaces the entire DevOps ecosystem.

The talk that was most CHAINS-adjacent was Reproducibly building artifacts that contain embedded signatures, given by Martin Schwaighofer. He tackled the problem of reproducibly building cryptographically signed executables. Cryptographic signatures of executables are used for providing trust in the source of a program. If the executable has been signed by a party that you trust, you can run it with confidence. But this confidence is based on the fact that only the trusted party has access to the signing keys. Since the signature is embedded into the resulting artifact, it is not reproducible by anyone but the signer, which defeats the main purpose of reproducible builds; third parties need to be able to reproduce the build in order to attest to its integrity. Martin approached this problem by creating two separate derivations (a derivation is a build action in Nix), only one of which is signed, and comparing the differences between the two. The reproducibility of the unsigned derivation allows for verification of the signed one.

Reproducibility is not all about software security. Markus Kowalewski of Stockholm University gave a talk about how he uses Nix as a part of his research in computational chemistry. The high performance computing software that underpins his research is often made in house at the academic institutions that uses them. The programs tend to grow organically over many years, as demands change. Often, however, maintainability is not the primary concern of the programmers. They are chemists that need to run an experiment, not software engineers. Since the code tends to be quite low level, reproducibility quickly becomes a concern. The output may depend subtly on the exact versions of libraries for scientific computations, and sometimes even on the hardware on which it is executed. Prof. Kowalewski explained that Nix allowed him to eliminate variable factors, which increased the reproducibility and maintainability of his software. In other words, Nix helped scientific experiments to be reproducible.

These were just a few highlights from the conference. A complete schedule with all talks and speakers can be found here.

Final thoughts

There is a new focus among the Nixsters. Soft skills were a hot topic this year; community management, onboarding of newcomers, and improved documentation was discussed inbetween the highly technical and specialized talks. The Nix board has recently been remade entirely to better serve these purposes. This is all a reaction to the quick growth of the community, and more work is needed. Nix is still confusing for beginners, but the onboarding experience is slowly improving. The Nix community is a welcoming one, and I hope that it will continue to grow and mature.

The lofty claims about Nix’s role in the supply chain are perhaps not without grounding. A lot of what is considered best practices now, such as building software reproducibly on hermetic build servers, has been done by the Nix community for a long time, in this case with their Hydra CI server. An admittedly quite barebones demonstration of where Nix lines up with SLSA can be seen here. (Check out the Makefile to see how different Nix commands can be used to fulfil SLSA requirements.)

But Nix is no panacea. There are many moving parts in every software supply chain, and package management forms only a part of it. Nix brings a lot of good ideas to the table, and I like the confidence of the community, but I am not sure that it is the silver bullet that some claim it to be. I am looking forward to seeing how the Nix community will continue to grow and mature.

Key takeaways

– Arvid Siberov